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Blog Caribbean 5.0

Blog Caribbean 5.0

Costa Rica

Posted on July 27, 2022 at 9:50 AM

Costa Rica

 

DRAFT 2.0

 

27 juli 2022

 

Aan het begin van de 16e eeuw werd de inheemse bevolking van Costa Rica verdeeld in boerenstammen. Ze hadden een verfijnde samenleving gecreëerd. Maar op 18 september 1502 kreeg Christoffel Columbus Costa Rica in zicht. Vanaf 1540 maakt Costa Rica deel uit van de onderkoninkrijk Nieuw-Spanje. Halverwege de 16e eeuw veroverden de Spanjaarden geleidelijk Costa Rica. Het ontbrak echter aan goud en de bevolking was klein.

In 1821 verklaarde Costa Rica, samen met vele andere Midden-Amerikaanse koloniën, de onafhankelijkheid van Spanje. Aanvankelijk maakte Costa Rica deel uit van een federatie met andere Midden-Amerikaanse staten. Het viel echter al snel uiteen en Costa Rica werd formeel een aparte staat in 1838. In 1889 werden in Costa Rica de eerste democratische verkiezingen gehouden. Sinds het einde van de 19e eeuw hebben slechts twee korte periodes van geweld de democratische ontwikkeling van het land verstoord.

Ondertussen werd in het begin van de 19e eeuw koffie verbouwd in Costa Rica (1808 - Koffie wordt vanuit Cuba in Costa Rica geïntroduceerd en wordt het belangrijkste gewas) en groeide er een klasse koffiebaronnen op. Koffie bracht nieuwe rijkdom naar het land. Het land ontwikkelde zich steeds meer op basis van coöperaties.

Op 1 december 1948 schafte Costa Rica zijn militaire macht af. Het budget dat voorheen aan het leger werd besteed, wordt nu besteed aan het verstrekken van gezondheidszorg en onderwijs. Costa Rica staat bekend om zijn stabiele democratie, progressief sociaal beleid, zoals gratis, verplicht openbaar onderwijs, hoog sociaal welzijn en nadruk op milieubescherming.

 

De presidentsverkiezingen van 1986 werden gewonnen door Óscar Arias van de PLN. Hij week af van de sociale democratie en vaarde een meer neoliberale koers. Hij ontving in 1987 de Nobelprijs voor de Vrede voor zijn inspanningen om een einde te maken aan de burgeroorlogen die toen woedden in verschillende Midden-Amerikaanse landen.

In 1998 won PUSC-kandidaat Miguel Ángel Rodríguez het presidentschap. Ook deze sociaal christelijk politicus vaarde een neoliberale koers met onder anderen privatisering. Hij ontmoete groot verzet toen hij de utiliteitssector wilde liberaliseren. Het zeer grote protesten.

In 2003 werd de grondwet gewijzigd en opende zo de weg naar herverkiezing voor voormalige presidenten Arias.

Bij verkiezingen van 2002 werd Abel Pacheco werd tot president gekozen, onder een platform voor nationale eenheid, maar zette het grootste deel van het neoliberale en conservatieve beleid van Miguel Ángel Rodríguez voort.

In 2004 hebben verschillende spraakmakende corruptieschandalen de fundamenten van PUSC vernietigd.

De verkiezing van 2006 Arias kreeg slechts een voorsprong van 0,4% op rivaal Ottón Solís en leidden tot een handmatige hertelling van alle stembiljetten. Na een hertelling van een maand en verschillende oproepen van verschillende partijen, werd Arias uitgeroepen tot de officiële winnaar met 40,9% van de stemmen, tegen 39,8% voor Solís.

Toen Arias weer aan trad, verschoof het politieke debat naar de ratificatie van de Midden-Amerikaanse Vrijhandelsovereenkomst (CAFTA). CAFTA werd goedgekeurd met 51,5% van de kiezers die het steunden, hoewel de verkiezing te maken kreeg met kritiek vanwege internationale, waaronder Amerikaanse, betrokkenheid.

De verkiezingen van 2010 werden gewonnen door Laura Chinchilla, de eerste vrouwelijke president van Costa Rica.

In 2014 verraste Luis Guillermo Solís, hij won met 77,81% van de stemmen. Volgens de sommigen is het succes van Solís een ander voorbeeld van anti-neoliberale politiek in Latijns-Amerika.

In april 2018 won Carlos Alvarado de presidentsverkiezingen. Zowel Solis als Alvarado vertegenwoordigden de centrumlinkse Burgeractie.

In 2022 werd de nieuwe president van Costa Rica, Rodrigo Chaves, de rechtse voormalige minister van Financiën.

Costa Rica laat zien hoe een geïmporteerde neoliberale periode leidde tot onrust en links komt opzetten.

 

Miguel Goede

 

Categories: DRAFT 2.0

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